Terminali Arjuna- Wonder Herb For Cardiovascular Diseases

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ARJUNA

Botanical name: Terminalia Arjuna

Family: Combretaceae

Vernacular names:
English Name- White Marudah, Arjun tree

Common (Indian) Names
Hindi: Arjun, Arjuna, Koha, Kahu, Arjan
Gujrati: Arjun - Sadada, Sadado
Marathi: Arjuna, Arjun Sadada, Sadaru
Tamil: Vellamatta
Telugu: Tella maddi
Kannada: Maddi
Bengali: Arjhan
Punjabi: Arjuna

Synonyms: Dhanvi, Indradruma, Kkubha, Karvirak, Dhavala, Nadisarja.

Classical Categorization:
Caraka: Kashayaskandha, Udardprashamana
Susruta: Salasaradi, Nyaghrodhadi
Vagbhata: Nyaghrodhadi gana, Viratarvadi, Asanadi gana.

General Description:
Arjuna is credited with several therapeutic properties, both in Ayurvedic and Unani Systems. It is considered to be tonic, astringent, cooling and is used in heart diseases, contusions, fractures, ulcers. It is also credited with styptic, febrifugal and antidysenteric peoperties.

It has been considered by the Ayurvedic physicians as well as by the modern practitioners as a cardiac tonic. Vagbhata was the first to prescribe the bark of Arjuna in heart diseases. Later Chakradatta described it as a tonic in heart disease. Bhava Mishra, a Nighantukara recognised that it's bark possesses some cooling, cardiotonic, wound healing and intoxicating effects. The bark and preparations made from it are reputed to have a marked stimulant action on the heart even today.

Sacred Value: According to a folk tale, this tree is said to have been born of the two sons of Kubair after saint Narada cursed them. The leaves or flowers are offered to Lord Ganapati on Siddhi Vinayaka Vrata, Sankastha Chaturthi Vrata and to Lord Vishnu on Shree Anantapadmanabha Vrata. According to astrologers, the plant is associated with constellation Swati whose presiding deity is Vayu.

Botanical Description:
A large tree up to 25 meter hight, smooth grey coloured bark.
Leaves- are sub-opposite, oblong or elliptic oblong, glabrous, often inequilateral, margin often crenulate, apex is obtuse or sub-acute, base is rounded or sometimes cordate, petioles 0.51.2cm, usually two glands are present.
Flowers- are small, yellowish white in colour.
Fruits- are generally 2.33.5 cm long, fibrous woody, glabrous with 5-7 equal, hard, thick narrow wings, striated with numerous curved veins.

Flowering : The panicled spikes of white flowers appear during AprilJuly
Fruiting: Fruits ripen from follwing February to May, in Indian conditions.

Morphology of the Fruit/ Seed :
Fruit is drupe, 2.5 cms long, ovate, thick with 5-7 equal, rigid, longitudinal wing, 0.5 cm broad. The fruit is often notched near the top, marked with oblique upward curving striations. Seeds germination takes place in 5076 days.

Distribution
Terminalia arjuna is a deciduous tree found throughout India, the bark of which has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine to support cardiovascular health for over three centuries.
Arjuna tree is common in almost every part of India. It grows well along the bank of streams, rivers, dry water courses, reaching very large sizes on fertile alluvial loam. It is very commonly found along the banks of rivers, streams and dry water courses in sub-Himalayan tract, Central and South India and West Bengal. It is also planted for shade or as a ornamental plant in avenues and parks.

History
Ayurvedic physicians in ancient India had the impression that the bark of this tree had some special virtue in promoting the union of fractures and the dispersion of ecchymosis when given internally.

Related Species
The genus Terminalia consist large hard wooded trees. Over 100 species are widely distributed in the tropics (Terminalia originated from Latin ward Terminus, alluding to the leaves being borne on the tips of the shoots). In India, Terminalia chebula, T. bellrica and T. ciliata are the major related species.

Major Constituents:
Arjunolic acid, Arjunin, Terminic acid, glycosides such Arjunoside I to IV, arachidic stearate, arjunic acid, arjunetin, tannins etc.

Principal Constituents are

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